”Systems Thinking is the art and science of making reliable inferences about behavior by developing an increasingly deep understanding of underlying structure.”
It is not so easy. Hardly any topic has been misunderstood in so many ways. Still systems thinking (ST) has more than 20 different methods to use in practice, although the term is not widely known (Edson: Systems Thinking A Primer). ST supports creating strategies, making analysis, evaluating bottle necks in organizations, estimating personal problems and the families, as well as hundreds of specific topics in numerous practical cases – not to forget its scientific benefits.
Systems thinking is a possible tool for everywhere, where there is crossing of flows to be understood, or transformation, which creates emergence. All learning policies can be used for ST, depending on the context. PESTLE means Politics, Economy, Society, Technology, Law and Environment. They are the most used approaches for it.
Both of them can be studied using the system architecture and the relevant mental models.
Systems thinking archetypes are listed in Fig 2 so that the drawing describes typical challenges for any big project during it.